the movement of substances into and out of cells

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  • The net movement of particles of a gas or a solute from an area of high concentration to a low concentration (along the concentration gradient).
  • The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion
  • Oxygen diffuses into cells for respiration


  • The net movement of water from a high to low water potential along a concentration gradient.
  • The different concentrations of free water outside causes the water to enter or leave the cell.
  • Isotonic: the same water potential on both sides of the membrane
  • Hypotonic: more water in the cell than outside
  • Hypertonic:


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