- Industrial and educational expansion led to the middle class wanting more liberal change.
- The professionals elected to the Zemstva were highly critical of autorcracy.
-Alexander III's introduction of land captains to get rid of any people in the Zemstva who complained only increased opposition.
-Also what angered them was the governments inability to coordinate famine relief which was always left to the Zemstva.
-This very much showed Tsarist incompetence.
- Frustrated Liberals formed the 'Beseda' the first organised Liberal opposition group.
Other Liberal Critics
-Liberal 'celebrities' such as the author Leo Tolstoy helped make the change popular.
-Alexander the III failed to eradicate radical oppression.
-Students reformed the People's Will and five members were excecuted (one was Lenins brother) for plotting to kill the Tsar.
-Populism reemerged in universities.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR)
-Established in 1901.
-Combined Marxism with the populist belief in land redistribution.
-Chernov edited the party journal 'Revolutionary Russia'.
-They urged the urban working class and the peasantry to challenge autocracy.