The Great Powers in the Middle East 1900-39/ Chapter 1


1. The Jewish Claim to Palestine.

  • The expulsion of the Jews from Palestine. The Jewish people lived in Palestine from about 1500BC. In AD70 and in AD135 the Jews rebelled against Roman rulers. Romans destroyed the Jewish temple and Jerusalem and expelled Jews.
  • Anti-Semitism in Europe. Jews were forced to live in separate areas, were not allowed to vote or even buy their own land. In the 19th century Jews migrated to Russia where after tsar assassination were persecuted. In 1896 Theodor Herzl published a book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) in which he argued that Jews should seek their own state.
  • "Next year in Jerusalem". By 1914 Jews agreed that their homeland would be Palestine(Promised Land). Those who believed in national homeland became known as Zionists.
  • The Balfour Declaration 1917. Brits needed help to win war with Germany so they needed USA to intervene. British Zionist Weizmann worked hard for a Jewish homeland. Brits believed that Jews in America would influence their government so in November 1917 they published a declaration which was a letter to Lord Rothschild. It was written by Lord Balfour in which he declared Britains support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

2. Anglo-French rule in the Middle East 1919-39

  • The Arabs and the First World War. Turkey fought on German side against Britain. The British navy was beginning to make more use of oil to fuel ships. They decided to encourage Arabs to rebel against their Turkish rulers "tyrants". The British high commissioner McMahon sent several letters to Hussein, the sharif of Mecca. McMahon promised Hussein that if the Arabs fought with Brits, the British would support Arab independence. In 1916, Arab army headed by Faisal was raised. In 1918, they marched and took over Damascus.
  • The Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. Britain and France wished to maintain their power in the Middle East so they signed the agreement.
  • League of Nations mandates in the Middle East. 1919 the Treaty of Versailles - Britain and France were given mandates to govern certain countries in the Middle East. The League of Nations allocated to France Syria and Lebanon and to Britain Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq.
    The Lawrence of Arabia advised the British government to establish Faisal as king of Syria. However, Syria is under French rule and Faisal in 1921  British agreed to French forces invading Syria and expelling Faisal. To the Arabs, it was…


sumaiya yasmin


you absolute precious jem-thank you