the costal zone

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  • Waves are formed by wind blowing over the fetch, friction on the water causes ripples which develop into waves, the larger the fetch the bigger the waves
  • fetch- distance of open water where wind blows
  • waves can be formed in tsunmais
  • as waves come closer to the shore the circular orbit is destorted to form an eliptical orbit, the top of wave moves faster and it breaks on the shore
  • beach-deposit of shingle at a coast often found at head of bay
  • crest-top of wave
  • swash- foward movement of waves up a beach
  • backwash- backward movement of water down a beach after wave has broken
  • There are two types of waves constructive- powerful with strong swash and weak back wash, this builds the beach up
  • AND destructive- formed by a storm that crashes down onto beach and has a powerful backwash, this decreases the beach
  • when a wave hits a beach or a cliff there are many types of errosion occuring:
  • HYDRAULIC- sheer power of the wave smashing into the cliff, trapped air is blasted into the holes and joints (cavitation) of rocks which causes rock to break off
  • CORRASION- fragments of rock being picked up in waves and thrown against cliff, the rocks act as errosive tools
  • ABRAISON- sandpaper effect of papering effect of pebbles  against the cliff making the rocky surface smoother
  • ATTRITION- rock fragments carried by the sea knocking into one another making the pebbles smaller and softer
  • Sediment can be transported in many different ways:
  • SOLUTION- dissolved rocks and chemicals from limestone or chalk
  • SUSPENSION- lighter particles carried (suspended) within the water
  • SALTATION- hopping or bouncing motion of pebbles along the seabed
  • TRACTION- heavy pebbles rolled along seabed
  • Longshore drift- the transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by waves approaching the beach…


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