The building blocks of cells:

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What is a cell?

  • Animal and plant cells have features in common such as a nuclues, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole.

Bacterial cell structure:

  • Bacteria cells do not have a nucleus, they have 2 types of DNA, plasmid and chromosomal. The chromosomal DNA carries most of the genetic information. Plasmid DNA forms small loops and carries extra information. 
  • Some bacteria have flagellum - a whil like tail. This helps the bacteria to move itself along. When we talk about these flagellum tails in multiple bacteria, we call them flagella.Bacteria Cell (

Functions of Plant and Animal cells:

  • Nucleus - Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell
  • Cytoplasm - Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
  • Cell Membrane - Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
  • Mitochondria - Most energy is released by respiration here
  • Ribosomes - Protein synthesis happens here

Extra parts of Plant Cells:

  • Cell Wall  - Strengthens the cell
  • Chloroplast - Contains chlorophyll, which absorba light energy for photosynthesis
  • Permanent Vacuole - Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid(


  • Length of object = length of magnified object / magnification

DNA and enzymes:

  • Aerobic respiration -  most of the energy comes from this process, it takes place inside the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondria are oval structures with a folded inner membrane. They occure in large numbers inside muscle cells and liver cells, where a lot of the energy is needed. The mitochondria hold a large number of different enzymes which are responsile


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