What is a cell?
- Animal and plant cells have features in common such as a nuclues, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole.
Bacterial cell structure:
- Bacteria cells do not have a nucleus, they have 2 types of DNA, plasmid and chromosomal. The chromosomal DNA carries most of the genetic information. Plasmid DNA forms small loops and carries extra information.
- Some bacteria have flagellum - a whil like tail. This helps the bacteria to move itself along. When we talk about these flagellum tails in multiple bacteria, we call them flagella.
Functions of Plant and Animal cells:
- Nucleus - Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell
- Cytoplasm - Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
- Cell Membrane - Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
- Mitochondria - Most energy is released by respiration here
- Ribosomes - Protein synthesis happens here
Extra parts of Plant Cells:
- Cell Wall - Strengthens the cell
- Chloroplast - Contains chlorophyll, which absorba light energy for photosynthesis
- Permanent Vacuole - Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
- Length of object = length of magnified object / magnification
DNA and enzymes:
- Aerobic respiration - most of the energy comes from this process, it takes place inside the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondria are oval structures with a folded inner membrane. They occure in large numbers inside muscle cells and liver cells, where a lot of the energy is needed. The mitochondria hold a large number of different enzymes which are responsile…