- Created by: LydiaMae1401
- Created on: 21-11-19 09:38
The Two-Process Model
Mowrer proposed this model which suggests that phobias are first acqurie through classical conditioning and then maintained throguh operant conditioning.
Classical Conditioning: how phobias are
- Classical Conditioning refers to learning by association.
- Phobias are acquired by associating a neural stimulus with a fear response.
Case Study of Little Albery (Watson and Raynor)
- Before Conditioning: UCS (white rat) --> UCR (happy)
- Watson & Raynor foudn that Albert showed a natural fear response to loud noises (UCS)
- During Conditioning: UCS (white rat) + NS (loud bang) --> UCR (cry) [repeat a few times]
- After Conditioning: CS (white rat) --> CR (cry)
- This caused him to cry at everything white and fluffy e.g. santas beard, cotton wool (Stimulus Generalisation)
- Once a phobia has been acquired, it is maintained by operant conditioning.
Operant Conditioning: how phobias are maintained
- Operant conditioning states that if behaviours are reinforced they are likely to be repeated.
- In this case phobias, the phobic repsonse is unpleasant and escaping from the object or situation causes a reduction in fear. This is an example of negative reinforcement.
- Application to therapy. Behaviourist ideas have been used to develop treatments including SD and flooding. Systematic Desensitisation…