- Created by: daisy yemm
- Created on: 22-02-19 14:16
- Behaviour is learned from experience
- Only observable, objective behaviour should be measured scientifically. Thought processes are subjective and difficult to test.
- It is valid to study the behaviour of animals and compare it to humans as we share the same principles of learning.
- We are born a blank slate, so there is no genetic influence on behaviour
- All behaviours learned can be unlearned
This is one of the behaviourist principles of learning and it is learning by association.
Classical conditioning was first displayed by Pavlov in the famous 'Pavlov's dog study(1927)':
- In the study, the food was the unconditioned stimulus. The dog's would salivate at the sight of food, this is the unconditioned response.
- Pavlov would then play a bell (neutral stimulus) when he presented the food to the dogs.
- The dogs began to associate the bell with the food and by the end of the experiment, the bell was a conditioned stimulus which would make the dogs salivate (now a conditioned response) even when no food was present!
food ------------- salivation
Bell + food ------salivation
Little Albert by Watson and Rayner (1920):
- In this study, Watson and Rayner were investigating whether an emotional response such as fear could be conditioned in a human being.
- Albert was 11 months old when the experiment was conducted. In the experiment, Watson presented a white rat directly infront of Albert. When he reached for the rat, Watson would stimultaneously strike a metal bar with a hammer, creating a loud noise and scaring Albert.
- Watson found that when the rat alone was presented to Albert, he immediatly became frightened and tried to move away from the rat.
- They had successfully shown that behaviour can be learned and that phobias could be conditioned into human babies.
- There are ethical issues to consider (study would not be allowed today) and methodoligical issues (only used one baby so difficult to generalise to all babies).
key terms -
When a stimulus becomes generalised to other related stimuli, which are also associated with the conditioned response. In Watson and Rayner's study…