- British merchants confined to small area of Canton unable to travel up Yangzte
- Piracy occured in Singapore and Canton- attacked European sailing ships and ships from EIC were less armed and inadequete, concerning for EIC who relied on China for operations and profit.
- Negative balance of trade- used silver bullion to purchase goods
How were these issues resolved?
- Grown cheaply
- Addictive properties made it illegal in China
- Chinese coastal merchants smuggled opium to supply its users
- Trade accelerated- 357 tons by 1822
- EIC monoploy expired in 1833 leading to expansion in opium trade from…