Surgery: More causes for improvements in surgery

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More causes for improvements in surgery

The number of operations grew hugely through the century, and surgeons became skilled at internal operations (1880s: first appendectomy; 1896: first open-heart surgery) and even tried (unsuccessfully) to transplant organs such as thyroid glands and testicles. Various factors pushed the process along:

  1. The Industrial Revolution / inventions
    • Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays - helped internal surgery.
    • Public demonstrations (eg of anaesthesia) allowed knowledge of new procedures to…


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