More causes for improvements in surgery
The number of operations grew hugely through the century, and surgeons became skilled at internal operations (1880s: first appendectomy; 1896: first open-heart surgery) and even tried (unsuccessfully) to transplant organs such as thyroid glands and testicles. Various factors pushed the process along:
- The Industrial Revolution / inventions
- Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays - helped internal surgery.
- Public demonstrations (eg of anaesthesia) allowed knowledge of new procedures to…