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 Pioneer Species --> Annuals --> Herbaceous Perennials --> Shrubs --> Climax Community

Pioneer Species:

- Only organisms that can tolerate a hostile abiotic environment (no initial soil for anchoring/nutrients)

- Some Lichens produce acids that break down rocks

- Some Lichens and Mosses can fix nitrogen and therefore add ammonia and nitrates into the environment

- When they die their decomposition adds humus to broken rock to make soil


- Die within a year

Herbaceous Perennials:

- Grow more than 2 years

- Rhizomes (Ginger)

- Tubers (Potato)

- Bulbs (Garlic)

Climax Community

- A more complex community in equilibrium with its environment

- High species diversity

Primary Succession

- As soil depth increases, organic content increases

- As an…


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