Studies Of Memory - Craik & Tulving (1975)

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Depth Of Processing And Retention Of Words In Episodic Memory


F.I.M. Craik & E. Tulving


To test the levels of processing framework, which claims that the best recalled material is that which has been processed deeply.

It was hypothesised that deeper processing would take longer than shallow processing.




Participants were told that the experiment was about perception and reaction time. They were giver four tasks that involved reading word lists and analysing words for appearance (structural) “Is the word in capital letters?, sound (phonetic) “Does the word rhyme with...?” or meaning (semantic) “Is this word a type of...?” “Does it fit into this gap in the sentence...?”. The words were shown for 200 milliseconds, but before it was shown they were asked a question about it which led to different types of processing. Some were shown the question on a card, others were read the question aloud. The participants then looked into a tachyscope, and after a ready signal the word was presented and they responded with…


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