Structure & Function of Processor

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The CPU has a number of different components to help it carry out the execution of instructions. These include:

  • Control Unit
  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit
  • Registers
  • Buses

Control Unit

The control unit manages the execution of instructions by sending control signals to other parts of computer. It also controls the fetch-decode-execute cycle.


A bus is a set of parallel wires connecting two or more computer components. The processor is connected to main memory by three separate buses: control, data and address. When the CPU wants to access a specific memory location in memory, it will send the address via the address bus. The data in the location is sent back via the data bus. 

The system buses (all three buses collectively) connect the I/O controllers, main memory and processor. However, only one device can transmit along a bus at any time.

Data and control signals can be sent to and


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