Steel is the general name given to a large family of alloys of iron with carbon or other elements.
Extraction of highly reactive metals occurs through electrolysis. Less reactive metals are obtained from their oxides by reduction with carbon.
Iron to Steel
- STAGE 1- Sulfur is removed from the iron through a reduction process with magnesium. Mg+S-->MgS which floats to the surface and is raked off.
- STAGE 2- Other elements are removed through direct oxidation with gaseous oxygen.
CO+½ O2--> CO (CO is collected)
Si+ O2--> SiO2
Mn+ ½O2--> MnO
4P+ 5O2--> P4O10
A water cooled oxygen lance goes down the converter to the surface of the iron. A supersonic blast of oxygen under pressure forces its way into the vessel and creates a seething foam of molten metal and gas…