- Created by: Dani_Gregs7
- Created on: 24-06-17 19:08
- A polysaccharide found in many parts of a plant in the form of small grains.
- Forms an important component of food and is the major energy source in most diets.
- Made up of chains of alpha-glucose monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds that are formed by condensation reactions.
- The chains may be branched or unbranched.
- The unbranched chain is wound into a tight coil that makes the molecule very compact.
- Structure related to function:
- It is insoluble and therefore doesn't affect water potential, so water is not drawn into the cells by osmosis.
- Being large and insoluble, it does not diffuse out of cells.
- It is compact, so a lot of it can be stored in a small space.
- When hydrolysed it forms alpha-glucose, which is both easily transported and readily used in respiration.
- The branched form has many ends, each of which can be acted on by enzymes simultaneously meaning that glucose monomers are released very rapidly.
- Found in animals and bacteria but never in plant cells.
- Very similar in structure to starch but has shorter chains and is more highly branched.
- Sometimes called animal starch because it is the major carbohydrate storage product of animals.
- In animals it is stored as small granules mainly in the muscles and the liver.
- The mass of carbohydrate that is stored is relatively small because fat…