- Transport and communications were dramatically improving, notably due to the railways.
- Because of society becoming more orderly the freedom and wild escapades of stage 1 became more and more out of place.
- Dr Thomas Arnold , was the headmaster at Rugby school from 1828 until his death in 1842.
He is widely regarded as one of the key reformers of the English public school system.
- Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control:
He made the chapel the schools spiritual and symbolic centre.
This established a new moral code.