- Created by: livvvx
- Created on: 19-04-19 20:41
Intrinsic motives come from within the individual, for example, enjoying training with friends. Extrinsic motives link to external rewards e.g. fame or awards.
According to research intrinsic motivation is highly important when deciding whether to participate in sport and in achieving a good performance. Ashford et al's (1993) study supports this: 336 English adults chosen on the basis of their use of a community sports centre. Results= intrinsic motivators : -physical well-being, psychological well-being, improvement of performance (achieving personal and competitive goals).
Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy, which refers to our belief about our abilities. It is a cog rather than emotional concept and it is often situation-specific, therefore we can have diff self-efficacy in diff sits.
Low self-efficacy= individual is unclear on what is needed to be successful or if they do know they are not confident they can do it.
High self-efficacy= individual knows what is required of them and is confident that they can do it successfully.
Bandura believed that learning from consequences (either by direct or vicarious reinforcement) was a cog process that would lead to outcome expectancy. In a sporting context, a person may know e.g. that training regularly and effectively will lead to success as they have experienced this before.
Bandura suggests that 4 factors have an influence on a person's self-efficacy:
- Previous personal achievement- if you've been successful in the past, this will act as a reinforcement that increases your self-efficacy and leads you to believe you can succeed again.
- Vicarious experience- B suggested we learn vicariously from the success of role models. If we see someone else demonstrating a sporting skill then their success can encourage us to believe we too can do it.
- Verbal persuasion- encouraging precise and positive feedback from the coach can act as effective verbal persuasion and increase self-efficacy.
- Emotional arousal- important for an athlete to be fully focused on their performance and in order for this to happen they must be emotionally ready and optimally aroused. But over-arousal leads to anxiety and can decrease performance and over-aroused, emotionally anxious athlete will lack self-efficacy.
Sport confidence is about our abilities to succeed i.e. to win. Confidence is believed to be one of the most consistent factors predicting success in competition
Factors that will influence self-confidence:
- -Prior achievement- past experiences of sporting success suggests that we can be successful again.
- -Self-regulation- confidence also requires that we can regulate our anxiety levels in the context of stressful sits
- -Climate- general atmosphere in which we prepare for sporting events. A calm supportive climate boosts confidence
Robin Vealey (1986) suggests that there are two types of sport confidence (trait and state) involved in the Model of Sport Confidence. Trait sport confidence= your belief in your general sports ability. State sport confidence= ability to perform in a particular sporting context e.g. scoring a penalty in football or making a free throw in basketball
Gill (1986) identified competitiveness as the key factors in explaining sport motivation…