Specialesed Animal and Plant Cells

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How are animal cells adapted?

  • White blood cell: important group of the immune system cells that recognise and destroy pathogens. Some white blood cells can change shape to engulf pathogens and squeeze between other body cells. Other white blood cells produce antibodies to 'tag' pathogens for destruction.
  • Red blood cells:transport oxygen molecules throughout the body. They contain a red pigment called haemoglobin which binds oxygen. Red blood cells are a concave disc shape, which increases their surface-to-volume ratio, allowing more oxygen to be transported.
  • Nerve cell: transmit electrical signals throughout the body. They have a long thin axon, surrounded by a layer of insulating myelin. This increases the speed of electrical impulses. The cell body has branched endings to connect to many other nerve cells.
  • Goblet cell: found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, where they secrete mucus to lubricate and protect. The top portion of goblet cells are packed with mucus granules. The nucleus and other organelles are found near the narrow base of the cell.
  • Sperm cell: male reproductive cells that fertilize egg cells. They have a long flexible tail, enabling them to swim towards the egg. They contain many…




This is quite impressive for GCSE. You must be an A* student ;)

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