Nelson - Child’s First Words
In her study of children’s 18 first words, she classified words like this:
Actions / Events
Personal / Social
Rescorla – Over and Under Extension
Over extension is when a child extends the meaning to other objects.
Types of over extension:
· Analogical - when a child uses a word to mean another word that has similar qualities or characteristics.
E.g. ’moon’ for ‘ball’.
· Categorical – when a child uses a word to mean another word in the same category.
E.g. ‘dog’ for ‘cat’.
· Statement – when a child uses a word to indicate something more.
E.g. ‘doll’ to mean ‘the doll’s bed’
Under extension is when a child restricts the number of references of a word to the original context or when the meaning of a word is narrower than usual. E.g. ‘clock’ may only mean a wall clock.
Crystal – Features of Acquisition
The phonological features of acquisition are (in order of appearance):
1. Stopped sounds
2. Consonants used at the beginnings of words
3. Consonants used at the end of words
4. Labial consonants appear
5. Friction sound replaced by stopped sounds
6. Front of mouth sounds preferred to back of mouth sounds
7. Consonant clusters avoided
8. Syllables are repeated
9. Children’s sounds will not be consistent
Halliday – Functions of Language
The functions of language are:
· Instrumental – expresses needs
· Regulatory – tell other what to do
· Interactional – forms relationships
· Personal – expresses feelings, opinion or identity
· Heuristic – to gain knowledge
· Imaginative – tell stories
· Representational / informational – convey facts