Sociology- Families & Households Definitions

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Ageism: The negative stereotyping of people on the basis of their age E.g the old are often portrayed as vulnerable, incompetent or irrational and as a burden to society.

Birth Rate: The number of live births per thousand of the population per year

Childhood: A socially defined age-status. 

Conjugal Roles: The roles played by husband and wife.

  • Joint Conjugal Roles- Husband and wife each perform both roles and spend their leisure time together.
  • Segregated Conjugal Roles- Husband is the breadwinner, Wife is the homemaker, and leisure time spent separately.

Culture: All those things that are learnt and shaped by a society or group of people and transmitted from generation to generation through socialisation.

Death Rate: The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year

Demography: The study of population, including birth, death, fertility and infant mortality rates, immigration and emigration, and age structure, as well as the reasons for the changes in these.

Dependency Culture: Where people assume the state will support them, rather than relying on their own efforts and taking responsibility for their families.

Dependency Ratio: The relationship between the size of the working population and the non-working or dependent population. 

Domestic Labour: Work performed in the home, such as childcare, cooking and cleaning. Part of the Expressive Role. 

Dual Burden: When a person is responsible for two jobs. Usually applied to women who are in paid work but also responsible for domestic labour.

Emotion Work: Management of one's own and other people's emotions.

Empty Shell Marriage: Where a couple continues to live under the same roof but as separate individuals. Usually where a divorce is difficult for legal, religious or financial reasons, or where a couple decides to stay together for the sake of the children.

Exchange Theory: The idea that people create, maintain or break of relationships depending on the costs and benefits of doing so. E.g a person may provide a relative with accommodation (cost) in return for help with childcare (benefit).

Expressive Role: The caring, nurturing, 'homemaker' role in the family. Functionalists argue that women are biologically suited to performing this role. Feminists reject this.

Extended Family: Any group of kin (related by blood, marriage or adoption) extended beyond the nuclear family.

  • Vertically Extended Family- E.g Grandparents
  • Horizontally Extended Family- E.g Aunts, Uncles, Cousins

Family Diversity: The idea that there is a range of


Isabella Swan .. Edward Cullen ***

well done amazing key terms ***

Mollie Atkinson

this was so helpful , thankyou !x



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