- Durkheim - crime is inevitable/crime can benefit society.
- Merton - strain theory/modes of adaptation.
- Cohen - status frustration.
- Cloward and Ohlin - three types of subculture/illegitimate opportunity.
- Miller - focal concerns.
- Matza - techniques of neutralisation/no commitment to delinquent values.
- Hirschi - social bonds.
- Gottfredson and Hirschi - inadequate self-control arising from weakened bonds is not enough to explain crime.
- Gordon - surprising that the working-class do not commit more crime due to their circumstances.
- Box - serious crimes are ideologically constructed.
- Snider - capitalist states will only pass laws which benefit lower classes when they are forced to do so by public crises or union agitation.
- Chambliss - there is one law for the rich and one law for the poor/higher classes are less likely to be prosecuted and if they are, are treated more leniently.
- Pearce - 'the crimes of the powerful'.
- Taylor et al - 'fully social theory of deviance'.
- Hall et al - mugging/hegemony/media exaggeration/moral panic.
- Becker - act…