First elemets emerged - period of conservative reaction following defeat of Napoleon in 1815
Liberalism - still dominant radical ideology - elements which sought some form of social justice had emerged during French Revolution
Most notable - 'Conspiracy of the Equals' led by Gracchus Babeuf in 1974
By 1930s - groups arguing for separate working-class organisation existed in France (Louis-August Blanqui 1805-81) and in Britain - the Chartists
By 1840s - such groups were widespread across Western Europe
Best known example - international League of the Just - 1847 - renamed itself the Communist League at the instigation of two members of its executive committee - Karl Marx (1818-73) and Frederick Engels (1820-95)
By this time - clear features were developing socialist thought.
Rested on attitudes towards capitalism and the ways in which society might be transformed
Initally - all socialists believed not only is society unequal but all wealth is produced by labour
From this - socialists believed that free-market capitalism is a source of inequality and explotation
Question was - what to do about this?
1. Totally destroy capitalism - through aboliton of private property. To replace it - should be some form of socialisation of property under democratic control
View promoted by Mark and Engels, and by French tendency influenced by Philippe Proudhon (1809-65)
2. Reform capitalism - save the interests of the people. Involved increased legislation on social conditions, social welfare financed by taxation - on the rich - and some limited public ownership of industry.