Zajonc developed social facilitation and social interference
Presence of others leads to increased arousal/awareness, this then causes an improvement in performance of simple tasks which require a dominant response: SOCIAL FACILITATION. Also causes an impairment in the performance of complex tasks which require a non dominant response: SOCIAL INTERFERENCE
- Linked social facilitation and interference with arousal levels
- We may experience distraction or evaluation apprehension - increase arousal
- High arousal improves simple or well learned tasks
- High arousal inhibits complex or poorly learned tasks
Why might the presence of others motivate us?
- innate tendency for arousal in the presence of others
- evaluation apprehension
- evokes challenge reaction when resources are sufficient, threat reaction when insufficient
- Social facilitation and interference occur when an individuals performance is easily identifiable.
- Social Loafing - individual performance unable to be identified.
Everyday implications of social psychology
- Social influence occurs as jurors deliberate/make decision
- Jury usually pick the verdict favoured by majority of members prior to deliberation
- Higher status jurors more influential
Social Influence and groups - peer pressure
- Social Identity Theory (Tajfel and Turner)
- The self-concept is developed by group membership
- Social categorisation - individuals classify people, including themself, into groups
- Social identification - accepting as self-stereotyping the qualities attributed to ones group - de personalisation.
- Self-concept/social identity
- Self esteem depends upon the individuals personal qualities and the values of the group to which they belong
- Ingroup vs Outgroup bias - by self rating ones group…