Social Class and Achievement
(Intellectual development, language, and values)
Douglas found that working class score lower on ability tests and are less likely to support intellectual development through reading and educational activities.
Bernstein identified two types of language:
1. Restricted code - the language of the working class. It consists of a limited vocabulary with simple sentences.
2. Elaborated code - the language of the middle class. It is more complex, with a wider vocabulary. It is seen as the correct way to speak.
Attitudes and values:
The working class place less value on education and are less ambitious, so children have lower achievement motivation.
The working class are believers of collectivism, fatalism, and immediate gratification.
The middle class prefer individualism and deferred gratification.
Tackles cultural deprivation by providing resources to schools in deprived areas.
Examples include Operation Head Start in the US, it provides pre-school education to poorer areas.
Can refer to poverty and a lack of material necessities.
90% of failing schools are in deprived areas.
Exclusion and truancy are more likely. One third of persistent truants leave school with no qualifications.
Overcrowding makes study difficult due to a lack of place to work or sharing a…