Social S&I

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What is personal identity? 

  • self: person's essential being that distinguishes them from others, especially as the object of introspection or reflective action 
  • identity: the fact of being who or what a person or thing is 
  • personal identity: persistent and continuous unity of the individual person normally attested by continuity of memory with present consciousness

Self concept

  • multidimensional construct that refers to an individual's perception of 'self' in relation to any number of characteristics, eg. gender roles, sexuality, racial identity
  • what you understand about yourself, inludes social character or abilities, physical appearance, body language, thinking
  • Carl Rogers believed it had three components (1) view you have of yourself (self image) (2) value you place on yourself (self esteem) (3) what you wish you were really like (ideal self)
  • Lewis (1990) development of self concept has two aspects - existential self, where child realises they exist as a separate entity from others and continue to exist over time and space, and categorical self, where child becomes aware they are an object in the world and self can be categorised due to age, gender
  • In early childhood children apply concrete categories to themselves, later include internal psychologicsl traits

Self awareness

  • psychological state in which one takes oneself as an object of attention
  • induced by circumstances that make you aware of yourself
  • effects of private self awareness (own thoughts, feelings) - intensification of affect: self awareness can  increase intensity of emotions
  • effects of public self awareness (how others see you) - evaluation apprehension: anxiety you may be evaluated negatively, loss of self esteem

Self esteem 

  • evaluation of one's self concept, measured using a questionnaire
  • high self esteem - optimistic, set high goals, cope well with negative things, accepting of others
  • low self esteem - pessimistic, underachievers, handle adversity badly

Rouge test

  • self recognition test that identifies child's ability to recognise a reflection in a mirror as their own 
  • child put in front of mirror and reactions monitored depending on child's development, distinct categories of responses are demonstrated
  • measure of self concept, child who touches rouge on their nose when looking in the…


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