Social Psychology - leadership

  • Created by: Shelly23
  • Created on: 03-01-17 12:01

'Leaders are born, not made' - Galton 1869 - origional trait research


  • Stogdill 1948 - intellegence, alertness, insight, responsibility, innitiative, persistence, self confidence, socialbility
  • Mann 1959 - intellegence, masculinity,adjustment, dominance, extraversion, consevatism
  • Kirkpatrick and Locke 1991 - drive, motivation, integrity, confidence, cognitive ability, task knowledge
  • Zaccarp, Kemp and Bader 2004 - cognitive abilities, extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openess, agreeableness, social intellegence, self-monitoring, emotional intellegence, problem solving

So the big five traits are: extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness and low neuroticism.

Situational perspectives is to do with interaction of traits and situation. Leaders accomadate to circumstances. Leadership can reflect task or situational demands.

Lippit and white 1943 - 'Social climate' of groups:

  • autocratic leadership style - liked less - group atmosphere is agressive, dependent and self orianted - as a result high productivity when the leader present and low productivity without the leader present
  • democratic leadership style - liked more - group atmosphere is friendly, group centered and task oriented - as a result relatively high productivity unaffected by the presence or absence of leader
  • laissez-fair leadership style - liked less - group atmosphere is friendly, group centered and play oriented - as a result low productivity which is increased in the absence of leader

Bales 1950 leadership roles

  • task specialist - more likely to be a dominant leader
  • socio emotional specialist

Ohio state leadership studies

  • subordinates completed questionaires about there leaders/manager (LBDQ)
  • they found two patterns of leadership
  • initiating structure - task oriented
  • consideration - relationship oriented
  • effective leader will be high on both dimensions

Contingency theories - leadership contingent on nature of leadership situation

Fiedler 1964

  • task oriented leaders - authoritatian, value group success, task accomplishment
  • relationship orientated leaders - non directive, relaxed, approachable, harmonious group…


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