Short Term Memory
Short-term memory uses a mainly acoustic code - sound, e.g. by repeating the material verbally. Conrad 1964: rhyming letters are harder to recall than non-rhyming letters because of acoustic confusion errors. This research may lack ecological validity; a possible problem for all memory research.
List (a) is easier to recall than list (b):
(a) G S Z W N T R
(b) D E C G P B T
Miller, 1956 used span measures and discovered that short-term memory has a…