sex and sexual orientation

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Sex representation 

Signorielli and Bacue - 30 year study on tv found women are underrepresented compared to men. 

Witt - two thirds of characters on TV are male

Greenberg and worrell- more male than female characters in ALL seasons reviewed 

There is stress of importance for programme type- representation greater difefrence for action adventure programmes and for prime time viewing 

men and women are portrayed differently. 

Apperance and ageing 

Brown and Knight - content analysis of 710 advertisments from magazines in australia found a changing focus on looking lovely and seeking approval to fight ageing 

consequences of objectification 

wright anf tokunaga - the more frequent mens exposure to magazines and reality TV that objectify women and *********** predicted more objectified cognitions about women. These cognitions about women predicted supportive attitudes of violence against women 

Gender representation in advertising 

- greater male representation (minus beauty health and household products)

-men typically do all voice overs even for products most commonly used by women. 

-household chores completed by women in 2 thirds of adverts

-Ads with men doing household shores contain humour. 

Gender representation in childrens TV 

female characters are under represented 

males out number women 4 or 5 to 1 

males more aggressive and dynamic 

females more supportive and fearful interested in romance

becoming increasingly idependent and intelligent 

SPORT

- there are 4 forms of gendered commentary 

1. media sexualise female athletes

2. their power and strength is undermined 

3. emphasise feminity - grace and balance

4. refer to martital status and whether they have children

katinka- they said her husband was the man responsible 

DISNEY

Wiersma - analysed out of home

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