Settlement and Retailing

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  • Circular
  • Centre is the CBD - the commercial and administrative centre.  There are mainly shops and offices.  Few people live here.  The land value is high but the area is very accessible.  It is typically congested and busy
  • The next zone is the centre of light industry, where there are old and new industries.  This is an area undergoing change.  It has grown up alongside major transport routes
  • The next area is the inner city area.  It is known as a twilight or transition zone because it is an area of decline and change.  It was developed in the 19th century around the newly-constructed factories.  In many cities, inner city redevolpment is now occuring.  The housing is the oldest and poorest quality
  • The next zone is the inner suburbs. It grew due to increasing car ownership and the demand for higher quality environments and housing.  It is interwar period and is mainly semi-detached with small gardens
  • The next area is the outer suburbs.  The houses are mainly detached and modern.  They are mainly privately owned and have larger gardens and garages.  It is on the rural-urban fringe.  However, there may be council estates here
  • Industrial estates and retail parks may be found on the rural-urban fringe, also.  They have good accessibilty are located near to a suburban work force.  The land is cheaper and there is more land available for expansion.  The environment is more attractive.

Why does the relationship between proximity from the city centre and land value exist?

The general rule is the closer to the city centre, the higher the land value.  This is because there is less land available in the city centre.  There is a high demand for it and the city centre is accessible, so the value is higher.  This is also because there are lots of services in the CBD, so people want to be near there.  On the outskirts of the city, the land is in high supply and low demand, so the value is lower.


  • Housing is limited due to high land values, some accommodation above shops in flats
  • Large chain stores, owned  by those who can afford the high land values.  The buildings are taller to get around the high land values.  They shops are easily accessible so they want to be located there for higher footfall
  • Industry is minimal because the value of the land is high and industry requires lots of land.  Land space is limited
  • Very little open space because there is little space available and it doesn't provide economic return
  • Transport routes are highly developed, meet in the city centre.  Congestion is high


  • 19th century terraces replaced with 1960s era flates with modern amenities. Lots of social problems
  • Corner shops used to serve a small area.  However there…


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