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Cultural defence and transition  - bruce - against secularisation theory

cultural defence- where religion provides a focal point for the defence of national, local or group identity in a struggle against an external force such as a foreign power

Cultural transition- wher ereligion provides support and a sense of community for ethnic groups such as migrants. -

Criticisms- berger has changed his views and now argues that diversity and choice actually stimulate interest

Beckford agrees with the idea that religious diversity will lead some to question or leave their religious beliefs- but this isnt inevitable.

Spiritual revolution- Heelas and woodhead- Kendal study.

congregational domain- traditional christianity

holistic milieu- sprituality and new age- in 2000, in a week 7.9%


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