• Created by: EloiseMay
  • Created on: 21-03-18 10:29


Classification: This is the process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster together in sufferers. The DSM-5 states that one positive symptom is needed for diagnosis, whereas the ICD-10 states that two or more negative symptoms are sufficient. The ICD also recognises subtypes: paranoid, hebephrenic and catatonic sz. The DSM doesn't.             

Postive symptoms: Hallucinations are unusual sensory experiences e.g. hearing voices or seeing distorted faces or people that aren't there - it can be experienced in relation to any sense. Delusions are beliefs that have no basis in reality. Common delusions e.g. being a historical figure. Other delusions e.g. body is under external control. Some can lead to aggression.

Negative symptoms: Avolition involves the lack of motivation to keep up with goal-orientated tasks. Andreason - poor hygiene, lack of persistence in work and low energy are signs. Speech poverty is recognised by ICD as a negative symptom - it is the reduction of quality and amount of speech. This can cause a delay in verbal responses. The DSM places emphasis on speech disorganisation (a positive symptom) e.g…


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