Samuel and Bryant

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  • Background: Piaget's theory - a maturational theory of cognitive development
  • Four stages:
  • Sensory motor stage (0-2yrs)
  • Pre-operational stage(2-7yrs)
  • Concreate stage(7-11)
  • Formal operations (11+yrs)

Aim: Test whether the methodolgy used by Piaget's conservation experiment was the reason children under the age of 8 years old made errors.

Participants: 252 school children- boys and girls. Aged5 to 8.5 - Crediton Devon.

  • Four groups of 63
  • Each of the four groups were split into 3
  1. Standard group (2 Q's)
  2. One judgement question (1Q)
  3. Fixed array ( didn't see the change)


  • Number, mass and volumes experiments
  • Ask child was asked to do four trials of each task =12

volume- Asked…


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