Russia 1917-c1991 topic 5

  • Created by: S_webb
  • Created on: 10-09-18 20:38

1983 -- NNovosibirsk Report comiled by Zaslavskaya, crisis in agriculture due to inefficiency. "For internal use only". Gorbachev felt that urgent reform was needed. July 1985 Romanov dismissed, Ryzhkov, Ligachev brought in, 1986 Yakovlev and Yeltsin. Initial campaign against alcoholism largely ineffective: alcohol remained at 15% of household spending and the government was so reliant on alcohol tax revenues simply in order to remain solvent. Samogon (akin to potcheen or moonshine) became popular ando nly had a further detrimental impact on health.

Twelfth plan based accound "acceleration" (uskoreniye). Investment skewed towards construction projects whcih caused extra spending poor equipment, indstury slow to use new technology, quantity over quality, swallowign of money by hte agircultural sector. "What Gosplan want", June 1986 Gorbahcev, "they do". Use of "superministries" to bring about change during the Plan was likewise a failure. "Military-industrial complex" preventing investment from going elsewhere. 1985-86 deficit rises from 2.4 to 6.2%. War in Afghanistan further drained money.

"Perestroika": January 1987 the "joint ventures" between businesses and the state, June 1987 Law on Srate Enterprises, loosening Gosplan control over prices and wages, 1988 cooperatives such as cafes began to be set up across the Union. Food production only increased from1-2%, 20% imported, products diverted from shops to cooperatives producing inflation, poorer citiesleft devoid of products, cooperatives attracted pervasive corrpution and bribary, hording, 1988 26 out of 55 Russian regions rationed meat, 1988 9% and 1989 13% urban wage crises, 1990 3,000 joint foreign ventures but most small-scale, local authoritised often ignored or saboutaged the reofrms, for instance by burning sausages in Leningrad. 1984 -- oil and gas are 54% ofexports, fall in price devesstated the economy. Nothing to replace the old organs of state planning, strikes in the Don basin and elsewhere. Shatalin "500 Day Programme" in 1991 was rejected by thePaty but accepted in the Russian parliament, resulting in disorder and collapse. Situation of "catastroika". 

"Glasnost" -- relative opening up of some free speech regarding, for instance, poor housing, the Katyn massacre and environmental issues such as the Aral Sea. April 1986 Chernobyl -- Gorbachevfel it vindicated glasnost but the authority of the Soviet state was already weakened further. Attempt at 19th Conference (June 1988) to separated party and state but difficult due to nomenklatura; deputies of SOviets to be elected for five rather than two years, 20 to nine departments, November 1985 five ministeries merged to create agriculture superministry. Churbanov sentenced to 12 years imprisonment -- Brezhnev's son-in-law. December 1986 -- Kunayev relaced by Kolbin, several hundred protested killed before order was eventually restored. Early 1987 idea of secret ballots discussed…


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