Rubenstein was born in 1924, and was raised as a non ritualized Jew but when he grew up became an American Conservative rabbi.
He is known for being very extreme and controversial in his views, and many say that the death of his son on Yon Kippur had an enormous influence on his works and opinions. He was also deeply affected by a meeting with a German Christian from Berlin, Dean Heinrich Gruber, whose interpretation of Auschwitz was that 'it was part of God's plan that the Jews died.'
Rubenstein believes God exists, and is the master. He believes that God is responsible for all the people killed in the Holocaust.
He wrote a book called 'After Auschwitz' where he put forward the question 'What kind of a God can Jews believe in after the death camps?' He challenges the historical tradition, tho Covenant made by God and his chosen people. He had a choice - either God is just and good and Israel needed to be punished or Israel is innocent and God is not just. His conclusion was to reject the God of history, reject a chosen Israel, reject the view that Israel was being tested.
He says "I would rather spend my life in perpetual revolt than render him even in the slightest homage…