ARCH1 Roman Set Sites Essay Plans

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Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh and Temple of Antenociticus, Benwell

Introduction

- Coventina's Well

- initially discovered in 1731

- further excavations in 1876

- Temple of Antenociticus

- initially discovered in 1862

- report not published

- need for new excavations

- enhance knowledge

- Hadrian's Wall

- Newcastle to Carlisle

- extent of Roman Britain

- military defence

- Genius Loci/local deities

- significant

- Coventina

- found other places

- Antenociticus

- found nowhere else

Coventina's Well

- built to keep water out

- healing powers of water

- near Temple of Mithras, Carrawburgh

- several altars

- votives found

- 13,000+ coins

- animal bones

- head of male statue

- altar with 3 water nymphs

- Coventina and 2 helpers

- dedication slabs

- 2 clay incense burners

- sensory experience

- Romano-Celtic temple(?)

- small scale with well being the cella

- division of well from rest of temple

- liminal boundary

Temple of Antenociticus

- Romanised local god

- altars with inscriptions

- small apsidal cult temple

- small rectangular temple

- head of cult statue

- Celtic style with horns of hair

- close to fort at Benwell

- possible links to worship of military

Key words

- shrine/temple

- liminal

- votives

- focus of attention

- art and iconography

- sensory experience

Conclusion

- both sites

- Genius Loci

- military based

- Coventina's Well

- votives

- altars

- art and iconography

- Temple of Antenociticus

- altars

- art and iconography

- isolated temple

Roman Lady of Spitalfields

Introduction

- discovered March 1999

- rescue excavation

- redevelopment of Spitalfields Market

- series of Roman burials discovered

- stone sarcophagus caught attention of MOLAS

- south to east alignment

- lead coffin inside

- female skeleton inside

- identified as Roman

- significance

- funerary ritual

- grave goods

- inhumation

- symbolism

Funerary Ritual and Inhumation

- define inhumation

- disposal of dead by burial

- define funerary ritual

- religious activity of disposing of dead with items for use in afterlife

- importance of lead coffin and stone sarcophagus

- stone sarcophagus

- high status

- wealth

- lead coffin

- preservation

- design

Symbolism

- lead coffin

- rope and scallop shell design

- define symbolism

- use of pictures and abstracts to explain important parts of Cosmos

- allows everyone to understand

- link to skeuomorphism

- design principal that takes inspiration from physical world

- shell design

- link to Venus and immortality

- infers life after death

- rope design

- links to idea of protection

- links with what happens after death and the claiming of the souls by spirits

Grave Goods

- define grave goods

- offerings to the dead for use in afterlife

- symbolise many Roman beliefs about afterlife

- bay leaf wreath/pillow

- protection

- in afterlife

- immortality

- eternal afterlife

- purification

- for afterlife

- glass cosmetic container

- link to magic

- presence of jet

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