Risk factors to addiction


  • The old age and adolescents are the most vulnerable to addiction due to lifestyle changes.
  • Helfer - study on swiss females over 75, 17% took painkillers or sleeping tablets daily, with 6% taking tranquilisers. 47% of swiss males had alcohol daily.
  • Health Canada Youth Smoking Survey - Found that adolescents between the ages of 12-15 were more likely to go on to develop other addictions as smoking is opening the gateway of addiction.


  • Correlation between stress and dependancy
  • Does stress cause dependancy or dependancy cause stress?
  • Higher levels of people with addiction in urban areas due to social stressors.
  • Piazza - behavioural sensitisation on rats, found increased activity


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