Respiration Summary



Respiration is a cellular process that makes molecules of ATP for cell use in processes such as protein synthesis, active transport and DNA replication.


Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and is the first stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate using ATP. Glucose-6-phosphate is then converted into two molecules of TP, which is then oxidised into pyruvate (a three carbon molecule). The co-enzyme that becomes reduced during this reaction is NAD. There is a net gain of ATP during glycolysis.

If there is a lack of oxygen (anaerobic respiration) then pyruvate must be converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide in plants/yeast or lactate in animals. These reactions use the NADH so that the oxidised NAD can continue to be used in glycolysis and this ensures that more ATP can be made.

If there is oxygen present then the pyruvate is actively transported into the matrix of the mitochondrion. Pyruvate


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