Research into Misleading Information

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Eyewitness Testimony

 is evidence provided by people who witnessed a particular event or crime.

Factors that effect eyewitness testimony include misleading information, age and anxiety.

Misleading information

Loftus and Palmer 1974.

Experiment 1. 


a group of participants were shown a film of a car crash.

Afterwards they were asked a series of questions. "How fast is the car going when they hit eachother?" However they changed the verb "hit" with "smashed", "collided", "bumbed" or "contacted" for different participants.


They found that participants who had had the verb "smashed" estimated a highier speed,(approx 41 mph) in comparison to those who had the verb "contacted" and gave an estimation of 32mph. 

Experiment 2. 


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