Research into long-term memory

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Baddeley (1966)

  • Aim:  Investigating encoding in the LTM. 
  • Procedure: -Four groups were given a list of ten words.
    -Group 1 = acousticall similar words.
    -Group 2= acoustically dissimilar words.
    -Group 3 = semantically similar words
    -Group 4- semantically dissimilar words.
    After a 20 min interval they were asked to serial recall the words. 
  • Findings: -Semantically similar words had 55% accuracy. 
    -Semantically dissimlar words had 85% accuracy. 
  • Conclusion: LTM uses semantic coding, as shown by participants having difficult recallign words of a similar meaning. 


Bahrick et al (1975)

  • Aim: Investigating the total duration


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