Research Methods: Type 1 and Type 2 Errors

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Type 1 and Type 2 Errors

  • In science, results are never certain.
  • Science deals with probabilities and makes judgements about what probability to accept or reject as significant.
  • A significant result is one where there is a low probability that chance factors were responsible for the observed difference, correlation or association between variables tested.

Levels of Significance

  • The role of statistical tests is to find out how probable it is that what we have found in our sample accurately reflects what happens in the population.
  • Hypothesis testing can be viewed as a competition betwen the experimental hypothesis and the null hypothesis.
  • Psychologists generally use a level of significance of P<0.05.
  • P stands for probability that chance factors were responsible for results.
  • This means probability of the results occurring by chance is less than or

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