Reproductive system


What is reproducton system

  • Essential characteristic of living organism 

  • Functional human male/female system needed for reproduction

  • Always important 




  • Contraption of urine smooth muscle 

  • Contraps breast milk 


  • Produce LH/FSH


  • Causes follicles to complete maturation and undergo ovulation 


  • Causes follicles to develop


  • Proliferation of endometrial cell, develop mammary glands, and positive feedback


  • Hypertrophy of endometrial cells, mammary glands and 2nd sexual characteristics 



  • Releases hormone, stimulates LH and FSH

Luteinizing hormone 

  • Stimulates synthesis and secretion of testosterone 


  • Support spermatogenesis 


  • Stimulate development 

  • Spermatogenesis 

  • Develop sex organs 

  • Develop 2nd sexual characters

The function 


  • Production of gametes

  • Reproductive cells (gonads)

  • Male = testes 

  • Female = ovaries  


  • Enables fertilisation of oocytes by sperm 

  • Male duct system nourish/mature sperm and put it inside female 

  • Female provides a passageway to fertilisation site 

Development and nourishment of a new individual 

  • Female nurtures fetus 

  • Breast milk

Production of reproduction hormone 

  • Controls hormones

  • Develop sex specific body form 

  • Needed for reproductive behaviours

Anatomy - male 

What is it?

  • Consists of testes, ducts, accessory glands (supporting structure)

  • Ducts include epididymides, ductus deferentia and urethra 

  • Accessory gland, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland 

  • Supporting structure, scrotum, penis 


  • Saclike structure, contains testes 

  • Divided into 2 internal compartments, incomplete connective tissue septum 

  • Compartments marked by raphe, this extends to anus and inferior surface of penis 

  • Wall of scrotum, superficial fascia, smooth muscle (dartos muscle) when it is cold it contaps and makes the penis small 

  • Cremaster muscle, extension of abdominal skeletal muscle into scrotum, this contacts.

  • Hot weather, dartos and cremaster muscle relax, allow testes to descent away 


  • Small, oval organs, 4-15 cm long, found in scrotum 

  • Function as exocrine and endocrine glands 

  • Major exocrine secretion is sperm cells, major endocrine secretion is hormonal testosterone. 

  • Outer part of testis, thick white capsule that contains mostly fibrous connective tissue, tunica albuginea. 

  • Divide each testis, 300 - 400 cone shape lobule seminiferous.

  • Perineum 

  • Area between thighs, bounded by pubic symphysis, coccyx posteriorly and ischial tuberosities laterally. 

  • Divided into 2, superficial muscle/deep transverse muscle, male = base of penis scrotum and anus triangle. 

Descent of testes 

  • 1-8 weeks, testes developed, retropited organs 

  • Connected to a labioscrotal swelling by a gubernaculum 

  • Swelling becomes scrotum 

  • Testes descent toward the area where inguinal canals form 

  • Extend through inguinal canal, enlarging the canal 

  • 7-9 months, move to scrotum, process vaginals proceed it 

  • Inferior part is in small closed sac, tunica vaginalis

  • Surround most of the testis to the same way it surrounds the heart. 


  • After being released in seminiferous tubules, sperm cells pass through a series of ducts from interior of the testes until they exit the body through the urethra. 

  • Sperm in seminiferous tubules move through tubuli recti to rete testis

  • Pass through efferent ductules, leave testis and enter epididymis (Head, body and tail)

Ductus Deferens and ejaculatory duct 

  • Ductus deferens emerge from the tail of epididymis, ascend along the posterior side of testis medical to epididymis, associate with blood vessels and form spermatic


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