Where does conscience come from?
God? Given to us by God to enable us to discern morally correct actions. Butler believes that it is the voice of God.
Innate? Does not depend on experiences or social conditioning. Some religious and secular approaches accept this approach. Provides framework to explain the need to be moral. Aquinas believes the conscience is innate, but it still requires some instruction and training.
Society? Result of society's expectations of us. Something is acceptable if society in general accepts it. Our conscience will generally accept these ideas of morality that are a reflection of society's values. Hegel supports this.
Parents? In many way, we are the products of our parents' example as moral teachers. We accept the morality of what our parents teach us until around the age of 10. After this point, when we make our own morally reasoned decisions, we will still be influenced by the moral awareness that was instilled by our parents. Supported by Piaget.
Authority figures? Formed and moulded by teachers, police, politicians, etc. Provide role models for us concerning what it right and wrong. This influence can be positive and negative.
Aquinas. Synderesis is the innate right reason that gives knowledge of the basic principles of morality. Enables us to develop…