Religion Fundamentalism

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  • Steve Bruce ( Fundamentalism and secularization):
  • Fundamentalism= Reaction to Modernization
  • All processes of modernization( Socialization, differentiation, rationalization and egalitarianism) challenge the authority of religion and some groups with strongly held religious beliefs will try and defend their religion against this perceived threat.
  • Fundamentalism is the belief that religious traditionalists have of the world around them changing so as to threaten their ability to reproduce themselves and their traditions.
  • Causes of fundamentalism:
  • 1. Ideological cohesion which makes it easier to mobilize people and claim their allegiance.
  • 2. Fundamentalist beliefs tend to be stronger where a group believes it has a common external enemy.
  • 3. Fundamentalism= less centralized control where authoritative knowledge is democratically available.
  • 4. Religious fundamentalism does not just require religious beliefs and organization; its also needs a supply of potential recruits.
  • 5. Emphasis based on action and on gaining political power, combined with the lack of opportunity for democratic processes in some Muslim countries, makes it more likely that Islamic fundamentalists will turn to violence.
  • In this sense, Fundamentalism= Rational response of traditionally religious peoples to social, political and economic changes that downgrade and constrain the role of religion in the public world.
  • Social changes which threaten religion are so strong that fundamentalism in the…


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