Formation 1 - Sociobiological
Differing focus between genders. Evolutionary. Males uncertain of paternity and produce a lot of sperm. Best strategy = mutiple partners. Value signs of fertility because fear wasting resources on cuckoldering another man's child. Females produce few eggs but certain of maternity. Seek genetically strong children by being selective in partner choice. Encourage investment of resources and look for kidness, indicating willingness to share.
Dunbar - analysed personal adverts. Males seek youthfulness and attractiveness, supporting different reasons for formation.
- oversimplified: assumes heterosexuality, that children are wanted and that all relationships are sexual.
- supports gender stereotypes of housebound women and promiscuous men
Formation 2 - Reinforcement Needs Satisfaction
Sees conditioning as explanation for formation. Direct ie meeting psychological needs for love, or indirectly ie by being associated with pleasent circumstances, making us more likely to form a relationship. Associate with good mood/removing bad mood > find attractive > increase formation chances.
Cunningham - males happy/sad film then rate. More positive reactions if happy film.
+ Support from May and Hamilton (same but with music.)
- may be better at explaining friendships where feelings are recipricol but not intricacies of long term romantic relationships
Maintanance 1 - Social Exchange Theory
Explains in terms of maximising benefits and minimising costs. Mutual exchange of rewards and costs between partners. Assessed by two comparisons:
CL - rewards compared to costs to judge profits
*CLalt - rewards and costs ompared against percieved rewards and costs of alternative relationships
Rusbolt - Rewards and cost compared to alternative rewards and costs to see if relationship should be maintained
- Argyle: methodologies artificial, contrived and little relevence to real life
- Murstein: only applies to 'score keepers' who are insecure and suspicious
Maintanace 2 - Equity Theory
Percieves individuals as motivated to achieve equity (fairness.) Feel dissatisfied with inequity. Maintanance occurs through balance. If inequitable (one puts in more than recieves) leads to dissatisfaction and possible dissolution. Relationships may alternate between balance and imbalance. Individuals are motivated to return to equity if percieve inequity. The greater the percieved inequity, the greater attempts to realign.
Yum - looked at various types of relationships in different cultures. Strategies for maintance altered as predicted, showing we can apply cross-culturally
- gender biased: equity more important to females
- emotional imput is unquantifiable (Mills & Clark.)
Dissolution 1 - Duck's stage theory
*Intrapsychic - private dissatisfaction of one partner
*Dyadic - discussed with other partner. If not resolved, next step:
*Social - breakup made public. Negotiation about children/finances, wider family involved.
*Grave-dressing - establish post-relationship view of breakup. Protect self-esteem. Rebuild life towards new relationship.
- Kassin: women more likely to stress unhappiness, men stress lack of sex. Women want to remain friends but men want clean break. Model not consider gender differences.
+ practical applications for counselling: if counsellor can identify stage she can tailor advice better
Dissolution 2 - Lee's five stage model
Process occuring overtime, not single event.
*Dissatisfaction - individual becomes…