Reforms under each revolutionary government in France

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  • Reforms made before the constitutional monarchy
    • The august decrees (5th-11th August 1789)
      • Abolished
        • Tithes
        • Venality
        • Financial privileges
        • special priveleges for areas/persons
      • All persons to be taken equally
      • All citizens, regardless of birth, were eligible for all offices (ecclesiastic, civil or military) 
  • Reforms made by the national assembly/ national constituent assembly
    • Constitution
      • A constitutional monarchy was put in place: the king still has power in the form of a suspensive veto, but is subject to an elected assembly
      • The right to vote restricted to active citizens- males over 25 resident in one place for a year and paid 3 days wages/labour in taxes
      • To stand for office or become a deputy, you had to pay more taxes (10 days or 50 days wages respectively)
    • Economic, Taxes and Finance 
      • Indirect taxes, tax farming and state monopolies all abolished
      • 3 new taxes introduced
        • Contributions foncières (universal land tax)
        • Mobliere (tax on moveable goods)
        • Patente (tax on commercial profits)
      • Free Trade for grain introduced August 1789
      • October 1790 internal tariffs abolished, creating national market for first time. 
        • A single system of weights and measures was also introduced
      • Church Land nationalised on 2nd November 1789
        • Assignats brought in to purchase land and soon became a new currency
        • State took over clerical responsibilities including clerical salaries, poor relief and education
    • Local government
      • 3 tier system of departments, districts and communes loosened central control
      • Officers elected to councils by active citizens
        • Councils responsible for law and order, taxes, amenities such as roads and church maintenance, and the national guard
    •  The Law
      • Justice intended to be free, fair and universally available
      • A single legal system was introduced
      • New system of law courts replaced the old parlements. Tribunals established at each level to deal with different crimes, as well as a central court of appeal and a high court for treason.
      • Torture, branding and hanging forbidden
      • Judges and magistrates elected by active citizens
      • Criminal cases to be tried by jury
    • Religious reforms
      • Tithes, pluralism, the don gratuit, annates and monastic orders who work with the poor all abolished
      • Protestants granted equal rights and religious tolerence
      • The civil constitution of the clergy
        • Oath to state by the clergy
        • Caused a split in the church; those who didn't make it were called refractory priests
  • Reforms under the Terror
    • CPS (committee of public safety) 6th April 1793
      • Set up to supervise and speed up the activities of ministers
      • Officially to deal with the war effort
    • Revolutionary tribunal 10th March 1793
      • Court set up to try those suspected of being counter revolutionaries quickly. Eventually an identity check is enough to be a guilty verdict.
    • CGS (Committee of general safety) 
      • Responsible for rooting out counter revolutionaries and dealing with internal security. Controls large spy network and secret police force
    • Representatives-on-mission
      • Mainly Jacobin deputies from convention sent to provinces to reassert government authority
    • The Armees revolutionary
      • Sans Culottes volunteers who acted on behalf of authorities to seize grain, destroy counter revolutionaries and attack anyone hoarding
    • The

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