- How do RR approaches differ from other theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and Labelling Theory?
· Realist approaches to crime differ markedly, approaches like labelling theory and critical criminology regard crime as socially constructed.
· By contrast, realists see crime as a real problem to be tacked, and not just a social construction created by the control agencies. In addition all realists argue there has been a significant rise in the crime rate – especially in street crime, burglary and assault.
· They are concerned about the widespread fear of crime and about the impact of crime on its victims.
- What are the characteristics of Realist approaches?
· Favoured rolling back the state
· Strong commitment to law and order
· Favoured ‘get tough’ stance on crime
· Increase use of prison in USA death penalty)
· ‘short, sharp shock’ approach to dealing with young offenders.
- When did Realist approaches emerge?
· 1970s and 80s in the political context of a shift to the right in politics.
- What are the two realist approaches?
· RR- share the NR or neo-conservative political outlook
· LR- are socialists and favour quite different policies for reducing time.
- Why is crime a real problem according to RR
· It destroys communities
· Undermines social cohesion
· Threatens society’s work ethic
- Who has RR been heavily influenced by
- Which political party do RR take their views from
- What is their view on dealing with offenders
- What are the aims of RR
- How are RR critical of Marxists explanations of crime
· They fail to offer any practical solutions to the problem of rising crime
· Labelling and CC are too sympathetic to the criminal and too hostile to the force of law and order
- What are three factors influencing crime
· Individual biological differences, inadequate socialisation and the under class, and rational choice to offend.
- What are the main causes of crime according to Wilson, Hernnstein and Murray
· JAMES Q. WILSON and RICHARD J HERENSTEIN put forward a biosocial theory of criminal behaviour. In their view, crime is caused by a combination of biological and social factors.
· Biological differences between individuals make some people innately more strongly predisposed to commit crime than others. E.g. personality traits such as aggressiveness, extroversion, risk taking and low impulse control put some people at greater risk of offending.
· Similarly, HERRNSTEIN and MURRAY argue that the main cause of crime is low intelligence, which they also see as biologically determined.
- What is an underclass
· Those who do not work and are in poverty.
- What does Murray mean by ‘generous revolution’
· The state providing too many benefits
- How is crime linked to socialisation according to Murray