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ropical Rainforests are the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of NPP and biomass. They are complex ecosystems with variations in climate, temperatures, and vegetation, within individual forests.

Temperatures are often thought to be permanently high, but they are highest on the forest edge where vegetation is more limited. The climate changes on a daily basis within the forest, and the idea of the forest being difficult to penetrate is only true at the edges where the sunlight allows rapid growth of vegetation.

Their development relies on:

Insolation and temperatures High temps. Allow all year growth of vegetation. Moisture Varies throughout the year, and true TRFs are said to have rainfall in excess of 2000mm and a dry season of no longer than 2 months. Nutrients Scarce, but are rapidly recycled and transferred. Phosphorus and nitrogen are the nutrients needed most.


The nature of a forest in terms of its ecology is due to the amount of energy from the sun that reaches plants and animals. Several vertical layers are found, with distinctive plant and animal species.

Layer:Characteristics: Top (Euphatic) Most productive (NPP, animal life and biomass). Tress over 25m. 25% of available energy absorbed. Middle (Oligotrophic) Trees are 10 - 25m. Bottom Smaller trees and some young…


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