Radiation

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Discovery of the nucleus:

Alpha particles from a radioactive source were allowed to strike a thin gold foil. Alpha particles produce a tiny, but visible flash of light when they strike a fluorescent screen. Surprisingly, alpha particles were found at large deflection angles and some were even found to be back-scattered. 

(http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/imgnuc/ruther.gif)

Most alpha particles went straight through the foil. Only about 1 in 2000 were deflected.

1 in 10000 particles were deflected more than 90 degrees. 

This experiment showed that the positive matter in atoms was concentrated in an incredibly small…

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