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• Radioactivity comes from the unstable nuclei of atoms.
• Stability in the nuclei occurs by releasing radiation.
• Radioactivity is a measure of radiation over time (counts per second/minute)
• Radioactivity is measured on a geiger counter
• It naturally occurs in the ground.

-There are three types of radiation
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
-These differ in size speed and how easily they can penetrate matter.
IONIZATION is where atoms gain or lose electrons turning them into charged particles called ions.

Alpha particles

• The largest form of radiation. It consists of 2 neutrons and 2 protons.
• The amount of protons gives of a large positive charge so it is the most ionizing.
• It is also the slowest form of radiation at 10% of the speed of light.

Beta particles

• Smaller than an alpha particle.
• Faster at half of the speed of light.
• 10x less ionizing
• Negatively charged

Gamma Waves

• A high frequency electromagnetic wave
• Speed of light
• No electric charge so least ionizing
• Penetration is easy
• Nuclei are unstable if there are too many or two little…