- Radioactivity comes from the unstable nuclei of atoms.
- Stability in the nuclei occurs by releasing radiation.
- Radioactivity is a measure of radiation over time (counts per second/minute)
- Radioactivity is measured on a geiger counter
- To measure radioactivity effectively you take away the average background radiation from your reading.
- Radon gas is the main contributor to background radiation.
- It naturally occurs in the ground.
- 1/2 of radioactivity is caused by radon gas.
-There are three types of radiation
-These differ in size speed and how easily they can penetrate matter.
IONIZATION is where atoms gain or lose electrons turning them into charged particles called ions.
- The largest form of radiation. It consists of 2 neutrons and 2 protons.
- The amount of protons gives of a large positive charge so it is the most ionizing.
- It is also the slowest form of radiation at 10% of the speed of light.
- Smaller than an alpha particle.
- Faster at half of the speed of light.
- 10x less ionizing
- Negatively charged
- A high frequency electromagnetic wave
- Speed of light
- No electric charge so least ionizing
- Penetration is easy
- Nuclei are unstable if there are too many or two little…