Quantitative Research Methods - Hypothesis tests and T testes

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Inferential Statistics

  • Prevent unreasonable conclusions from data
  • Use samples to infer about populations
  • Calculate probability that the effects in the data could have arisen by chance
  • Alow a decision if chance or 'real effect'
  • 'Real effects' have below threshold probability of arising by chance
  • Significance threshold in Psychology usually at a=0.05 or 0.01 for larger studies

Several tests can be employed for data analysis, best test depends on research question and type of data:

  • For nominal data - binormial or chi-square tests
  • For continuous data the test depends on the research question: relationships between variables - correlation; diffrences between groups - t test or similar
  • Parametric methods for normally distrubuted data
  • Non-parametric methods for non-normal data

Parametric vs Non-Parametric Tests

Parametric statistics, such as the t-test assume, that:

  • The data we have collected are normally distrubuted. If that is not the case, or we have reason to believe it is not the case, we should use non-parametric tests
  • If…

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