Quantitative Research Method - Introduction

  • Created by: Shelly23
  • Created on: 09-01-17 00:36

There are two types of statistics:

  • Descriptive - to describe a study population
  • Inferential statistics - using what we know from the data we have collected to make inferences about what we don't know


A hypothesis formally states expectations about behaviour that defines the purpose and goals of the study. It testing is an essential componant of psychology. Statistical techniques are used extensively for hypothesis testing.

Types of hypothesis:

  • Casual hypothesis - postulates a particular casual influence
  • Descriptive hypothesis - postulates particular charachteristics of behaviour without reference  to causation
  • Two-tailed hypothesis - direction of the difference between groups is not stated for example "there will be a significant difference between men and women on memory task performance"
  • One-tailed hypothesis - direction of difference is stated for example "women will perform better than men on a memory task"

Scientific hypothesis must be:

  • Falsifiable - test can show that hypothesis is incorret
  • Precise - all terms must be defined clearly
  • Rational - hypothesis must be possibly true, given current understanding
  • Parismonious - hypothesis should be as simple as possible - new concepts should be introduced only when necessary

Souces of hypothesis

  • Observation - of others or introspection
  • Existing research - origional hypothesis derieved from previous study - retesting of a previously testsed hypothesis
  • Theory - logically organised set of proposals that defines, explains and organises our knowledge about many significant aspects or parts of behaviour

Testing hypothesis through research:


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